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Untuk melakukan studi perhitungan Hubung Singkat disuatu pusat pembangkit, menurut saya parameter yang harus dipertimbangkan selain dari data pembangkit (prime mover dan alternator data) juga harus mempertimbangkan parameter Grid yang tersambung ke Pusat pembangkit tersebut serta data pembangkit lain yang tersambung ke Grid tersebut lengkap dengan pola operasi paralelnya.

Tanya – Maswandi

Hallo rekan-rekan milis,

Saya mohon bantuan rekan-rekan yang sedang bekerja dibidang electrical engineering.

Karena saya sudah lama meninggalkan bangku kuliah maka hal-hal yang secara teoritis banyak yang lupa sedangkan literature sdh tidak ada lagi.

Untuk itu kalau ada yang tahu…Parameter apakah yang kita butuhkan untuk mendapat Studi perhitungan Hubung Singkat (Short Circuit MVA until 2005) disuatu pusat pembangkit dan juga rumusnya.

Terima kasih atas bantuannya.

Tanggapan – enjang.kusmana

Pak Maswandy,

Mohon maaf kalau reply emailnya agak telat, tetapi mudah-mudahan informasinya bisa membantu.

Untuk melakukan studi perhitungan Hubung Singkat disuatu pusat pembangkit, menurut saya parameter yang harus dipertimbangkan selain dari data pembangkit (prime mover dan alternator data) juga harus mempertimbangkan parameter Grid yang tersambung ke Pusat pembangkit tersebut serta data pembangkit lain yang tersambung ke Grid tersebut lengkap dengan pola operasi paralelnya.

Bila pusat pembangkit anda terhubung dengan grid PLN, maka data-data jaringan, parameter dan pola operasi pembangkitannya bisa diperoleh di PLN yang berhubungan dengan studi engineering. Mengenai Rumus-rumusnya, bila perhitungannya akan dilakukan secara manual bisa bapak peroleh pada buku ‘Analisis Sistem Tenaga Listrik’ karangan William D. Stevenson, Jr. Penerbit Erlangga. Untuk lebih praktisnya, sebaiknya studi perhitungan Hubung Singkat tersebut dilakukan menggunakan engineering software seperti ETAP, EDSA atau yang lainnya.

Mengenai data/parameter yang diperlukan, saya cuplikan data-data yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan studi menggunakan ETAP seperti berikut :

Bus Data

Required data for short-circuit calculation for buses includes:

• Nominal kV (when the prefault voltage option is set to use nominal
kV)

• %V (when the prefault voltage option is set to use bus voltage)

• Type, such as MCC, switchgear, etc., and continuous and bracing ratings

Branch Data

Branch data is entered into the Branch editors, i.e., 3-Winding Transformer Editor, 2-Winding Transformer Editor, Transmission Line Editor, Cable Editor, Reactor Editor, and Impedance Editor. Required data for short-circuit calculations for branches includes:

• Branch Z, R, X, or X/R values and units, tolerance, and temperatures, if applicable

• Cable and transmission line length and unit

• Transformer rated kV and MVA

• Base kV and MVA of impedance branches

For unbalanced short-circuit calculations you will also need:

• Zero sequence impedances

• Transformer winding connections, grounding types, and grounding parameters

Power Grid Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for utilities includes:

• Nominal kV

• %V and Angle

• 3-Phase MVAsc and X/R

For unbalanced short-circuit calculations, you will also need:

• Grounding types and parameters

• 1-Phase MVAsc and X/R

Synchronous Generator Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for synchronous generators includes:

• Rated MW, kV, and power factor

• X’, X’, and X/R

• Generator type

• IEC exciter type

For unbalanced short-circuit calculations, you will also need:

• Grounding types and parameters

• X0

• X2

Inverter Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for inverters includes:

• Rated MW, kV, and power factor

• K factor in the Rating page

Synchronous Motor Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for synchronous motor
includes:

• Rated kW/hp and kV, and the number of poles

• X’ and X/R

• % LRC, Xd, and Tdo’ for IEC short-circuit calculation

For unbalanced short-circuit calculations, you will also need:

• Grounding types and parameters

• X0

• X2

Induction Motor Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for induction motors includes:

• Rated kW/hp and kV

• X/R plus one of the following:

Xsc at ½ cycle and 1½-4 cycle if ANSI Short-Circuit Z option is set

to Xsc, or

%LRC if ANSI Short-Circuit Z option is set to Std MF

% LRC, Xd, and Td’ for IEC short-circuit calculations

For unbalanced short-circuit calculations, you will also need:

• Grounding types and parameters

• X0

Lumped Load Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for lumped load includes:

• Rated MVA and kV

• % motor load

• % LRC, X/R, and Xsc for .5 cycle and 1.5-4 cycle

• X’, X, and Td’ for IEC short-circuit calculation

Additional data for unbalanced short-circuit calculations includes:

• Grounding types and parameters

High Voltage Circuit Breaker Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for high voltage circuit breakers includes:

ANSI Standard Circuit Breaker:

• Max kV

• Rated Int. (rated interrupting capability)

• Max Int. (maximum interrupting capability)

• C & L rms (rms value of closing and latching capability)

• C & L Crest (crest value of closing and latching capability)

• Standard

• Cycle

IEC Standard Circuit Breaker:

• Rated kV

• Min. Delay (minimum delay time in second)

• Making (peak current)

• AC Breaking (rms ac breaking capability)

PowerStation calculates the interrupting capabilities of the circuit breaker from the rated and maximum interrupting capabilities. This value is calculated at the nominal kV of the bus that the circuit breaker is connected to.

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for low voltage circuit breakers includes:

ANSI Standard Circuit Breaker:

• Type (power, molded case, or insulated case)

• Rated kV

• Interrupting (interrupting capability)

• Test PF

IEC Standard Circuit Breaker:

• Type (power, molded case, or insulated case)

• Rated kV

• Min. Delay (minimum delay time in second)

• Making (peak current)

• Breaking (rms ac breaking capability)

Fuse Data

Required data for short-circuit calculations for fuses includes:

• Fuse ID

ANSI Standard Fuse:

• Interrupting (interrupting capability)

• Test PF

IEC Standard Fuse:

• Breaking (rms ac breaking capability)

• Test PF

Other Data

There are some study case related data which must also be provided, and you can enter this data into the Short-Circuit Study Case Editor. The data includes:

• Standard (ANSI/IEC)

• XFMR tap option (transformer tap modeling method)

• Prefault voltage

• Report (report format)

• Machine X/R (machine X/R modeling method)

• Faulted buses

• Cable/OL heater (select this option to include cable and overload heater elements)

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