In principal, to determine preferred oil pipeline system, integration of hydraulic, mechanical, operations, maintenance and economical aspects have to be performed. This paper provides fundamentals of oil pipeline systems design, specifically focuses on hydraulics aspect.
By : Dani Rusirawan
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology Institut Teknologi Nasional (ITENAS), Jl. PKHH. Mustapa No. 23, Bandung 40124
Abstract. In principal, to determine preferred oil pipeline system, integration of hydraulic, mechanical, operations, maintenance and economical aspects have to be performed. This paper provides fundamentals of oil pipeline systems design, specifically focuses on hydraulics aspect.
Keywords: Oil and pipeline systems, hydraulics
Pipelines are like arteries and veins. They carry the lifeblood of modern civilization. In a modern city they transport water from the sources of water supply to the points of distribution; convey waste from residential and commercial buildings and other civic facilities to the treatment facility or the point of discharge. Similarly, pipelines carry crude oil from oil wells to tank farms for storage or to refineries for processing.
Now days, pipelines as a transportation system have been increased in the world. End users required oils, as a source of energy to drive their expanding economies and suppliers need to maintain a constant flow of income delivering energy to these users. Safe and reliable pipeline systems are crucial in getting source of energy to world markets.
Conduct to pipeline engineering, pipeline systems is included in it work scope. Basically, work scope of pipeline engineering consist of several item as follow: pipeline material, pipeline systems, pipeline stress, pipeline locations, pipeline engineering economics, pipeline maintenance, pipeline construction and support areas.
In the design of an oil transportation (pipeline) system, it is necessary to consider many aspects of design and operation as well as project economics in determining the preferred pipeline system to transport a commodity, or commodities, from a source to a destination. On a technical or engineering level, three aspects of design are interrelated in the system approach to design:
3. Operations and Maintenance
Decisions in one area of design directly affect, or limit, the options in another area. For example, it may be necessary to locate a pump station such that it is accessible, for example, on a main road, near an electrical power source. Thus, the pipeline route will have an intermediate location point set, in addition to the origin and terminal points. Likewise, preliminary design and cost estimating (economic aspects) are not separate and independent procedures but are instead closely related and proceed concurrently.
The hydraulic design is the process of evaluating the physical characteristics of the commodity or commodities to be transported, the quantities to be transported, the pipeline route and topography, and the range of pressures, temperatures, and environmental conditions along the route. Identifying the number and location of pump stations with respect to the hydraulic characteristics of the system is also part of the hydraulic design. There may be several viable hydraulic designs for any given pipeline-design basis and route. The most feasible is identified in conjunction with the owner or operator of the system, considering early use requirements and future capacity plans for the system.
In the hydraulic design, there are mechanical-system designs that can be developed to meet design criteria. It aims to deliver the commodity from origin to destination. The mechanical design is governed by the codes and standards developed from experiences in operating petroleum pipelines systems. The mechanical design focuses on the selection of pipe material and specification of physical line-pipe properties such as pipe diameter and wall thickness as required by the stresses imposed on the system by the hydraulic and thermal conditions, yet within the limits set by the Code. Other aspects of the mechanical design include the type, size, and power required of pumps and other equipment or ancillary facilities required to meets the hydraulic-thermal design, such as heating stations, and the support or burial requirements for the pipeline.
The final aspect of design takes into consideration the day-to-day tasks of operating and maintaining the functional integrity of the system. These include the necessary control systems to operate the system within its design parameters and to promote safe and continuous operation.