Apakah sudah ada bukti sahih dari negara2 yang sudah ‘bangkotan’ pakai PLTN (contoh, US,
Eropa barat, Russia, Jepang, KorSel). Apakah memang sudah ada bukti sahih (istilahnya smoking gun) bahwa PLTN memang berakibat buruk, bahwa karyawannya (setelah pensiun) dan/atau penduduk yang tinggal didekat PLTN menjadi mandul, terkena kanker, mengalami mutasi, dll.

Pembahasan – soedardjo

Sangat menarik untuk membuktikan pertanyaan pak Pardede di http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/Migas_Indonesia/message/57899
Diskusi inipun telah dicuplik sebagaian di blog pak Cahirul Hudaya:
http://www.nuklir.info/?p=61

‘apakah sudah ada bukti sahih dari negara2 yang sudah ‘bangkotan’ pakai PLTN (contoh, US,
Eropa barat, Russia, Jepang, KorSel). Apakah memang sudah ada bukti sahih (istilahnya smoking gun) bahwa PLTN memang berakibat buruk, bahwa karyawannya (setelah pensiun) dan/atau penduduk yang tinggal didekat PLTN menjadi mandul, terkena kanker, mengalami mutasi, dll’

Kajian hubungan mandul dengan instalasi nuklir memang masih lemah. Namun segala sesuatu agar tidak terkesan hoax (mengolok-olok) maka Sosialisasi Nuklir Harus Jelas Faktanya.
http://www.batan.go.id/tmp_news.php?id_berita=463&db_tbl=Berita

Fakta tersebut, dengan Google atau melalui internet dapat mudah dicari. Sayangnya, masih banyak kendala menggunakan internet, terutama untuk anak-anak sekolah. Fakta menunjukkan bahwa 95% lebih mahasiswa belum pernah mencari infonuklir melalui website di BATAN. http://www.infonuklir.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=59

Kemungkinan BATAN melalukan buka-tutup informasi. Seperti e-learning masalah radiasi, PLTN, dahulu ada di Pusdiklat sangat interaktif, namun sayang sekarang ditutup.

Walau di http://www.infonuklir.com/modules/news/index.php?storytopic=10 juga membahas tentang radiasi untuk masyarakat, namun saya secara pribadi lebih suka dengan e-learning dari Pusdiklat Batan, yang dapat digunakan para operator pengguna sumber radiasi di Industri, welding inspector dan lain sebagainya.

Diseminasi atau sosialisasi mengenai nuklir, sudah lama digalakkan oleh kaum perempuan melalui Women in Nuclear

http://www.win-global.org/WINGCurrent_Status_and_challenges.pdf

Kembali ke masalah mandulkah bekerja di Instalasi Nuklir. Memang di beberapa media terbuka (tanpa regristrasi) sulit didapat masalah ini. Ada yang free regristrasi di http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/58/8/535

Di situ tuliskan antara lain:

Main messages

The aim was to determine whether men and women who are exposed to low-level ionising radiation at work are at increased risk of primary infertility. 2.6% of men and 3.7% women aged 40 or more reported primary infertility. For men, we found no support for a hypothesis linking exposure to low level ionising radiation with primary infertility. For women, the prevalence of infertility was higher among onitored women than non-monitored women, but not significantly so and the numbers were too small to draw any firm conclusions.
Policy implications These results suggest that exposure to low level ionising radiation within the nuclear industry of the United Kingdom has no detrimental effect on male fertility. There were insufficient data to allow firm conclusions about infertility in female nuclear industry workers.

(Maaf saya mempunyai keterbatasan untuk menterjemahakan, sekaligus menghindari hoax jika saya salah menterjemahkan).

Efek radiasi terhadap manusia, memang tidak secara terus terang dijelaskan korelasi mandul dan efek radiasinya di situs BATAN

http://www.infonuklir.com/modules/news/makepdf.php?storyid=22

Ada situs yang mensitir bahwa efek Chernobyle untuk kemandulan pria adalah meningkat tiga kali lipat dari tahun 1982-1985 ke tahun 1986 – 1990

http://www.ippnw-students.org/chernobyl/Chernobyl-Paper.pdf

Terima kasih dan maaf jika tidak berkenan.

(Maaf saya mempunyai keterbatasan untuk menterjemahakan, sekaligus menghindari hoax jika saya salah menterjemahkan).Efek radiasi terhadap manusia, memang tidak secara terus terang dijelaskan korelasi mandul dan efek radiasinya di situs BATANAda situs yang mensitir bahwa efek Chernobyle untuk kemandulan pria adalah meningkat tiga kali lipat dari tahun 1982-1985 ke tahun 1986 – 1990Terima kasih dan maaf jika tidak berkenan.

Tanggapan 1 – MetNet

Maaf, bbrp bagian saya delete supaya fokus.

IAEA memiliki dasar kuat untuk hati2 dalam menyimpulkan hubungan peningkatan cancer incidence di Belarus, Rusia. Krn. Sebelum terjadi kecelakaan Chernobyle, data cancer incidence tdk valid.
Setelah terjadi kecelakaan, fokus dunia adalah efek dari pencemaran sehingga dilakukan pemeriksaan scr detail termasuk cancer incidence dg cara yg benar dan valid.
Data yg dihasilkan sekitar 400 orang per 100.000. (baca report dlm pdf file pd bagian cancer statistik).

Peningkatan penderita kanker sulit setelah kecelakan dan sesudah kecelakaan sulit dibandingkan krn kelemahan data sebelum kecelakaan tsb.

Silahkan dicek berapa cancer incidence di USA (2003):

http://www.statehealthfacts.org/comparemaptable.jsp?ind=64&cat=2 Data inciden di USA tidak berbeda scr signifikan dg data di Belarus,Rusia. Padahal di USA tdk terjadi kecelakaan spt reaktor Chernobyle.

Sy tdk yakin adanya hubungan penderita kanker dg USA sbg pemakai PLTN terbanyak. Setahu saya faktor resiko cancer terkait dg. banyak faktor termasuk yg sy tdk menguasai ilmunya.
Lihat cancer incidence di area New Mexico (NM) tempat terjadinya puluhan ledakan percobaan bom nuklir, lebih kecil dari pada New York.

Khusus PLTN, air pendingin pada sistem sekunder tdk tercemar radiasi. Pelolosan radiasi pd sistem sekunder akan men-triger alert dan reaktor shutdown secara otomatis. Sebelum hal ini terjadi, sistem primer selalu dimonitoring dg baik dg batas yg jelas. Sebelum radiasi pd sistem sekunder naik, tentu terjadi peningkatan radiasi pada sistem primer.

Bbrp kejadian peningkatan radiasi pada PWR Jepang terjadi saat mencoba kombinasi bahan bakar Uranium-Plutonium (MOX). Persis spt cerita di atas, peningkatan radiasi melebihi ambang batas membaut reaktor shutdown dg otomatis.

Tetapi, persepsi mandul membuat saya senang, krn sy menjadi topik pembicaraan saat rekan2 saya tahu bahwa sy bekerja di instalasi nuklir. Alhamdulillah persepsi itu tdk betul. Bagi yg pernah mengalami kecelakaan nuklir, sy tdk punya referensi.

Tanggapan 2 – soedardjo

Terima kasih pak Bekti atas informasinya.

Tapi apakah kanker tersebut disebabkan karena nuklir atau bukan? Mohon dijelaskan dari situs

http://www.statehealthfacts.org/comparemaptable.jsp?ind=64&cat=2

atau

http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr/npcrpdfs/US_Cancer_Statistics_2004_Incidence_and_Mortality.pdf

(lebih dari 8 Mb) tersebut?

Kita fokuskan yang berkaitan dengan nuklir saja.

Dari: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/inf07.htm

28 people died within four months from radiation or thermal burns, 19 have subsequently died, and there have been around nine deaths from thyroid cancer apparently due to the accident: total 56 fatalities as of 2004. By 2000 about 4000 cases of thyroid cancer had been diagnosed in exposed children. Among these, nine deaths are attributed to radiation. However, the rapid increase in thyroid cancers detected suggests that some of it at least is an artifact of the screening process. Thyroid cancer is usually not fatal if diagnosed and treated early.
An increased risk of leukaemia due to radiation exposure from Chernobyl may become evident in future among the higher-exposed liquidators. There is some evidence already of this and possibly solid cancers among Russian liquidators exposed to more than 150 mSv.

An authoritative multi-agency study published in 2006 quantified the effects. Overall some 56 people were killed or have subsequently died, including the 9 children from thyroid cancer – which could have been avoided. Among some 600,000 workers exposed in the first year, the possible increase in cancer deaths ‘due to this radiation exposure might be up to a few percent. This might eventually represent up to four thousand fatal cancers in addition to the approximately 100,000 fatal cancers to be expected due to all other causes in this population.’

This 2005 Chernobyl Forum study (revised version published 2006) involved over 100 scientists from eight specialist UN agencies and the governments of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Its conclusions are in line with earlier expert studies, notably the UNSCEAR* 2000 Report which said that ‘apart from this [thyroid cancer] increase, there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure 14 years after the accident. There is no scientific evidence of increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality or in non-malignant disorders that could be related to radiation exposure.’ As yet there is little evidence of any increase in leukaemia, even among clean-up workers where it might be most expected. However, these workers remain at increased risk of cancer in the long term.

* the United Nations Scientific Commission on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, which is the UN body with a mandate from the General Assembly to assess and report levels and health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation.

http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/jaworowski.html

In fact, an opposite effect was observed: there was a 38% decrease in thyroid cancer incidence as compared with the non-irradiated population [8, 9]. In a much smaller British study of 7417 adult hyperthyroid patients whose thyroids received average radiation doses from iodine-131 reaching 300 000 mSv, a 17% deficit in incidence of all studied cancers was found

Fourteen years after the Chernobyl accident in the officially termed ‘highly contaminated’ areas of the former Soviet Union, except for thyroid cancers, no increase in incidence in solid cancers and leukemia was reported. In its 2000 Report, UNSCEAR stated that the ‘population need not live in fear of serious health consequences’, and ‘generally positive prospects for the future health of most individuals should prevail’ [6]. No epidemics of cancers in the Northern Hemisphere, direly predicted from the LNT assumption to reach tens and hundreds of thousands, or even millions of cases, has ever occurred.
The number of 1800 new thyroid cancers registered among the children from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine should be viewed in respect to extremely high occurrence of the ‘occult’ thyroid cancers in normal populations [11-14]. These cancers, not presenting adverse clinical effects, are detected at post mortem, or by ultrasonography examinations. Their incidence ranges from 5% in Colombia, to 9% in Poland, 13% in the USA, and 35% in Finland [12]. In Finland occult thyroid cancers appear in 2.4% of children 0 to 15 year old [11]. In Minsk, Belarus the normal incidence of occult thyroid cancers is 9.3% [15]. The greatest incidence of ‘Chernobyl’ thyroid cancers in children under 15 years old, of 0.027%, was registered in 1994 in the Bryansk region of Russia, which was less by a factor of about 90 than the normal incidence of occult thyroid cancers among the Finnish children.

Mungkin tidak validnya dapat dijadikan pelajaran oleh Indonesia, sebelum ada PLTN harus ada data kanker di Indonesia, sehingga PLTN nantinya di Indonesia jangan sampai dijadikan biang keladi terjadinya penambahan kanker di Indonesia.