The term of project is very familiar for us nowadays. Many kind of project was established. We can categorize it into many kind of type using many approaches. By amount of money we can categorize it into several types such as small, medium and large project. By discipline, we can find there are many types of project such as infrastructure (included in this term are bridge, building, road, real estate, public facilities etc), facility for special purpose such as milling facilities for mineral processing, plant for petrochemical, etc.

By ; Syam Tawakkal

The term of project is very familiar for us nowadays. Many kind
of project was established. We can categorize it into many kind
of type using many approaches. By amount of money we can
categorize it into several types such as small, medium and large
project.

By discipline, we can find there are many types of
project such as infrastructure (included in this term are
bridge, building, road, real estate, public facilities etc),
facility for special purpose such as milling facilities for
mineral processing, plant for petrochemical, etc.

Chris Hendrickson and Tung Au classified construction project
into:

_ Residential housing construction

_ Institutional and commercial building construction
encompasses a great variety of project types and sizes such
as schools and universities, medical clinics and hospitals,
recreational facilities and sport stadiums, retail chain
storages and large shopping centers, warehouse and light
manufacturing plants, and skyscrapers for offices and
hotels.

_ Specialized industrial construction, involves very large
scale projects with a high degree of technological
complexity, such as oil refineries, steel mills, chemical
processing plants, and coal-fired and nuclear power plants.

For people who not involve in any kind of project the question
that they usually ask is what the project actually means are?

There are many answers that we can get in many books or
publications and almost in all publications expert agreed in
defining Characteristics of a project as follow:

_ It has a start date and a finish date.

_ It is not a repetitive activity.

_ It is special because it is never same in resources, cost
and problem.

_ A project done only once.

Our understanding in the characteristic allows us easily to
define whether an activity is a project or not. Commonly, a
project always fulfills the above characteristics.

J.M Juran defines a project as a problem scheduled for solution.

This definition forces us to recognize that projects are aimed
at solving problem and that failure to define the problem
properly is what sometimes gets us into trouble.

PMI define a project as a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product or service.

Now, we have a clear understanding about the project. The next
question is what do we need to execute a project properly?

Experts have varied explanations about this. The differences
probably come from different approaches. In this paper I tried
to simplify and summarized them into general principles.

Here is a list of general principles:

1. Technical Knowledge

2. Team Members

3. Work Breakdown Structure

4. Schedule

5. Project Control

6. Budget

7. Hard Work

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